Shaper Machine | Principle, Types, Application, Advantage, Disadvantage

By | January 13, 2019

What is a Shaper Machine?

A Shaper Machine is a special kind of manufacturing machine that uses liner reciprocating motion of single point cutting tool to generate a linear tool path.

Shaper with boring bar

Shaper with boring bar

Working Principle of the Shaper Machine

Working Principle of the Shaper Machine

Working Principle of the Shaper Machine

In the Shaper machine a single point cutting tool is rigidly mounted on the tool holder, which is mounted on the ram. The work piece is held rigidly in a vice (or clamped directly on the table).

The ram reciprocates and thus cutting tool held in tool holder moves backward and forward on the work piece.

In a standard shaper, cutting takes place during the forward stroke of the ram and the backward stroke remains idle.

The forward and backward motion is obtained by “Quick Return Mechanism”.

The depth of the cut is adjusted by moving the tool downwards towards the work piece.

Types of Shaper Machines

  1. On the basis of cutting stroke
  • Draw cut type
  • Push cut type
  1. On the basis of table design
  • Universal shaper
  • Standard shaper
  1. On the basis of ram travel
  • Vertical shaper
  • Horizontal shaper
  1. On the basis of driving mechanism
  • Hydraulic shaper
  • Geared shaper
  • Crank shaper

Applications of shaper machine

  • To generate straight and flat surfaces
  • To smooth rough surfaces
  • To make internal splines
  • To make gear teeth
  • To make dovetail slides
  • To make keyways in pullies or gears

Advantages of shaper Machine

  • Low tooling cost
  • Easy to use

Disadvantages of shaper machine

  • They are slow
  • They are inefficient

Below are some questions and answers related to shaper machines.

What is the difference between planer and shaper?

In a shaper machine work piece is held stationary and the cutting tool moves back and forth across the work.

In a planar machine, the tool is stationary and work piece travels back and forth under the tool.

What is quick return mechanism in shaper machine?

A quick return mechanism is a type of mechanism which produces a reciprocating motion in which the time taken for travel in one direction is less than in the other.

Who invented shaper machine?

It is believed that Samuel Bentham developed shaper machine. But Roe credits James Nasmyth with the invention of the shaper machine.

How the size of shaper is specified?

The size of a shaper is specified by the maximum length of stroke or cut it can make.

What is a shaping process (or operation)?

Generating a straight tool path with the help of a single point cutting tool (reciprocating) is known as shaping process (or operation).

Also read:

Applications of Lapping process

Types of manufacturing processes

Types of material removal processes

Types of milling processes

Image attributions:

Featured: Attributions: By Three-quarter-ten – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0,

Working principal: Duk. Own work assumed (based on copyright claims)., CC BY-SA 3.0,


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