Planer Machine | Working Principle, Types, Applications

By | January 14, 2019

What is a Planer Machine?

A planer machine is a type of metal working machine that uses linear relative motion (reciprocation) between the workpiece and a single-point cutting tool to cut the work piece.

A planer is very much similar to a shaper but there are some basic differences. A Planer Machine is larger and has moving workpiece, whereas in a shaper Machine cutting tool moves.

Planer Machine

Planer Machine

Working principle of Planer Machine

In a Planer Machine the job is fixed rigidly on the machine table. A single point cutting tool held properly in the tool post is mounted on the reciprocating ram.

The reciprocating motion of the ram is obtained by a quick return motion mechanism.

As the ram reciprocates, the tool cuts the material during its forward stroke.

In return stroke, there is no cutting action and this stroke is called the idle stroke.

Working Principle of the Shaper Machine

Applications of Planer machine

Below are some most common applications of planer machine.

  • Cutting slots and grooves
  • Generating accurate flat and curved surfaces
  • Cutting at an angle and machining dovetails

Types of Planer Machines

Below are some common types of planer machines.

  1. Divided table planer
  2. Edge or plate planer
  3. Pit planer
  4. Open side planer
  5. Standard or Double housing planer

Below are some questions and answers related to Planer.

What is the difference between shaper and planer?

In a planer, workpiece reciprocates over the stationary cutting tool. Whereas in a shaper, the cutting tool reciprocates.

Who invented the planer Machine?

General Bentham invented planer.

Also read:

Applications of Lapping process

Types of manufacturing processes

Types of material removal processes

Types of milling processes

Image attribution:

Featured: By Andy Dingley (scanner) – Scan from Kennedy, Rankin (1912 edition of 1905 book.) The Book of Modern Engines and Power Generators, vol. VI, London: Caxton, Public Domain,

Working principal: Duk. Own work assumed (based on copyright claims)., CC BY-SA 3.0,


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