Pelton Turbine

Pelton turbine is a type of impulse turbine which converts water energy (kinetic and potential energy of water) into mechanical energy. Later this mechanical energy can be converted into electrical energy with the help of an electrical alternator. An impulse turbine is a type of turbine in which all the kinetic energy of water gets… Read More »

Hydroelectric Power Plant

A hydroelectric power plant is a plant which converts energy of water (Kinetic and potential energy) into electricity (or electrical energy). These power plants operate on renewable and green energy. Which means they are not depleting any limited energy resource and at the same time not causing any harm (pollution) to our environment. Working of… Read More »

Rankine Cycle

Rankine cycle is a vapor power cycle (a type of thermodynamic cycle) on which a steam based thermal power plant works. It consists of four processes Isobaric heat addition at boiler Isentropic expansion at turbine Isobaric heat rejection at condenser Isentropic compression at pump Now let’s understand Rankine cycle by relating it to steam based… Read More »

Thermal Power Plant

A thermal power plant is a power station which converts thermal energy to electrical energy. A thermal power plant is different from hydro power plant, where energy (kinetic and potential) of water is converted into electrical energy. For operating a thermal power plant, thermal energy can be obtained by burning fossil fuel, nuclear fuel, solar… Read More »

Steam Engine and its Types

A steam engine is a type of heat engine in which working fluid is steam. It converts thermal energy of steam into mechanical work. Mechanical work can be used in generating electricity or propelling a locomotive. Steam is obtained from a boiler, where some fuel is burned to generate heat. Alternatively, we can say chemical… Read More »

Joule Thomson Effect | Joule Thomson Coefficient

Joule Thomson effect Before moving to the topic we should first know that Joule Thomson effect, Joule Thompson effect, Joule kelvin effect, Joule Thomson expansion, Joule kelvin expansion are the different names of the same thing. To understand the Joule Thomson effect, it is very important to first understand Throttling process. Throttling process: Throttling is… Read More »

Second Law Efficiency [Turbine and Compressor]

Second law efficiency We all know the general formula for calculating efficiency of a heat engine. It is a ratio of output work to input heat. This formula for calculating efficiency is in line with first law of thermodynamics. Which deals with the conservation of quantity of energy (not quality). But when it comes to… Read More »

Exergy or Availability in Thermodynamics | Dead State in Thermodynamics

When a system is not in equilibrium (or dead state in this case) with its surroundings there is an opportunity in convert this departure from equilibrium to do some useful work. For example; If there is a difference between the temperature of system and surroundings then this temperature difference can be utilized to produce useful… Read More »

Clausius’ Inequality and Clausius’ Theorem

Clausius’ theorem The cyclic integral of ∂Q/T for a reversible cycle is always equal to zero. Proof of Clausius’ theorem: Let’s consider a reversible heat engine. From the absolute thermodynamic scale of temperature, we know that for a reversible process Q1/Q2 = T1/T2 Q1/T1 – Q2/T2 = 0 Q1/T1 + (-Q2)/T2 = 0 ΣCYCLE (Q/T)… Read More »

Entropy: How it’s Originated in Thermodynamics [Fully Explained]

Birth of Entropy Entropy is the degree of randomness of a thermodynamic system. In this article we will discuss how the concept of Entropy is originated in thermodynamics. Let’s consider a reversible heat engine. From the absolute thermodynamic scale of temperature, we know that. Q1/Q2 = T1/T2 Q1/T1 – Q2/T2 = 0 Q1/T1 + (-Q2)/T2… Read More »