Category: Engineering Thermodynamics

Isentropic Process

The entropy of a fixed mass can be changed by (1) heat transfer and (2) irreversibilities. Then it follows that the entropy of a fixed […]


Entropy can be viewed as a measure of molecular disorder, or molecular randomness. As a system becomes more disordered, the positions of the molecules become […]

Coefficient of Performance of Refrigerator and Heat Pump

Refrigerator We all know from experience that heat is transferred in the direction of decreasing temperature, that is, from high-temperature mediums to low temperature ones. […]

Thermal Efficiency

Wnet,out = Qin – Qout In above eqn., Qout represents the magnitude of the energy wasted in order to complete the cycle. But Qout is […]

Heat Engines

As we know, work can easily be converted to other forms of energy, but converting other forms of energy to work is not that easy. […]

Throttling Valves and Throttling Process

Throttling Valves and Throttling Process Throttling valves are any kind of flow-restricting devices that cause a significant pressure drop in the fluid. Some familiar examples […]

Ideal-Gas Law/Equation of State, Universal Gas Constant and Molar Mass

Property tables provide very accurate information about the properties, but they are bulky and vulnerable to typographical errors. A more practical and desirable approach would […]

Mechanical Energy

Many engineering systems are designed to transport a fluid from one location to another at a specified flow rate, velocity, and elevation difference, and the […]

Nuclear Energy

Here in this article we will discuss about Nuclear energy in detail, if you are interested in knowing basics of Nuclear Energy i.e. Internal Energy. […]

Internal Energy in Thermodynamics

Internal energy is defined earlier as the sum of all the microscopic forms of energy of a system. It is related to the molecular structure […]