Forging | Types, Defects, Advantages, Disadvantages, Applications

By | August 23, 2018

What is forging?


Forging is a manufacturing process in which shape of a heated metal changed by applying external force. Heated metal is used in forging because it is much easy to reshape heated material compared to colder one.

However, in many forging operations cold metal is also used.

Forging operations

There are basically two types of forging operations

  1. Drawing out

In this type of forging operation, a metal is elongated and as a result its cross-sectional area decreases.

  1. Upsetting

Upsetting is opposite to drawing out operation. In upsetting cross-sectional area of the workpiece is increased and as a result length of workpiece decreased.

Forging types

There are basically four types of forging

  1. Smith forging

Smith forging is the same which a village blacksmith uses for making various tools. In smith forging the heated metal gets repeated blows of hammers to get desired shape.

  1. Drop forging

This is the operation done in close impression dies by means of drop hammers. Here the Force for shaping is applied in several blows.

  1. Press forging

Press forging is same as drop forging but, the force is applied here with the help of hydraulic machines.

  1. Machine forging

The only difference in press forging and machine forging is that, in press forging material is drawn-out but in machine forging material is upset.

Forging defects

Though the products manufactured by forging are of superior quality as compared to other manufacturing process but there are still some defects which could arise.

  • Unfilled sections
  • Cold shut
  • Scale pits
  • Die shift
  • flakes
  • Improper grain flow

Advantages of forging

These advantages are in comparison with other manufacturing processes.

  • Parts manufactured by forging are stronger
  • It is more reliable and less costly
  • It offers better response to heat treatment
  • It offers more consistent and better metallurgical properties
  • It offers broad size range of products
  • It requires fewer secondary operations
  • It has great design flexibility

Disadvantages of forging

  • In hot forging it is difficult to perform secondary operations
  • Capital cost is more
  • Very high man and material safety procedures need to be followed

Applications of forging

  • Automobile industry
  • Valves and fittings
  • Hand tools and hardware
  • Machinery and equipment
  • Defense
  • Aerospace

Image source:

Attribution:┬áBy Rainer Halama – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0,

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