In this article we will learn following things about casting

  • What is casting
  • Advantages
  • Limitations
  • Types
  • Defects in casting

What is casting?

Casting is a manufacturing process in which molten metal is poured into a specially designed cavity. When metal cools down and becomes solid it takes the shape of cavity. This cooled solid metal is called casting. After this we take out that casting of desired shape and size from the cavity.

We can further do some work in this casting to make it fit for our use.

This video will help you to understand casting process.

Advantages of casting process

  1. Any intricate shape may be internal or external can be made
  2. It is practically possible to cast any material
  3. Tools required for casting processes are generally inexpensive
  4. Cooling of casting is generally uniform from all directions hence it is generally does not have directional properties
  5. Many materials can only be processed by casting processes because of their metallurgical considerations
  6. It is practically possible to make casting of any size, even up to 200 tons

Limitations of casting process

  1. Generally Dimensional accuracy of casting products (in case of sand casting) are not so good and can not be used for final use. Hence, further processing of casting is required before final use
  2. Sand casting process is labor intensive
  3. With some materials it is not possible to overcome defects arising due to moisture present in sand.

Casting defects

Gas defects

  • Blowholes and open blows
  • Air inclusions
  • Pinhole porosity
  • Shrinkage cavities
  • Shrinkage cavities

Moulding material defects

  • Cuts and washes
  • Metal penetration
  • Fusion
  • Run out
  • Rat tails and buckles
  • Swell
  • Drop

Pouring metal defects

  • Misruns and cold shuts
  • Slag inclusions

Metallurgical defects

  • Hot tears
  • Hot spots

Special casting processes

Shell moulding

Precision investment casting

Permanent mould casting

Die casting

  • Hot chamber process
  • Cold chamber process

Vacuum die casting

Low pressure die casting

Centrifugal casting

  • True centrifugal casting
  • Semi centrifugal casting
  • Centrifuging

Continuous casting

Squeeze casting

Slush casting

Vacuum casting

I hope now you are able to understand casting, its types, advantages, limitations and defects. I case you have some doubts, please feel free to ask them to me through the comments section.

Featured Image source: AAME

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