Entropy can be viewed as a measure of molecular disorder, or molecular randomness. As a system becomes more disordered, the positions of the molecules become […]

Coefficient of Performance of Refrigerator and Heat Pump

Refrigerator We all know from experience that heat is transferred in the direction of decreasing temperature, that is, from high-temperature mediums to low temperature ones. […]

Thermal Efficiency

Wnet,out = Qin – Qout In above eqn., Qout represents the magnitude of the energy wasted in order to complete the cycle. But Qout is […]

Heat Engines

As we know, work can easily be converted to other forms of energy, but converting other forms of energy to work is not that easy. […]

Heat Exchangers

As the name implies, heat exchangers are devices where two moving fluid streams exchange heat without mixing. Heat exchangers are widely used in various industries, […]

Mixing Chambers

In engineering applications, mixing two streams of fluids is not a rare occurrence. The section where the mixing process takes place is commonly referred to […]

Throttling Valves and Throttling Process

Throttling Valves and Throttling Process Throttling valves are any kind of flow-restricting devices that cause a significant pressure drop in the fluid. Some familiar examples […]

Turbines and Compressors

Turbines and Compressors In steam, gas, or hydroelectric power plants, the device that drives the electric generator is the turbine. As the fluid passes through […]

law of conservation of mass

Conservation of mass is one of the most fundamental principles in nature. We are all familiar with this principle, and it is not difficult to […]

Ideal-Gas Law/Equation of State, Universal Gas Constant and Molar Mass

Property tables provide very accurate information about the properties, but they are bulky and vulnerable to typographical errors. A more practical and desirable approach would […]