Internal combustion engines can be classified on the basis of several grounds. Some of the most popular grounds of IC engines classification are discussed here in detail.
Classification of IC engines based on type of fuel used
1. Engines using volatile liquid fuels
like gasoline, benzene, kerosene, alcohol etc.
2. Engines using gaseous fuels
3. Engines using solid fuels
like charcoal powdered coal etc
4. Engines using viscous liquids fuels
like heavy and light diesel oils.
5. Engines using two fuels
Classification of IC engines based on method of charging
1. Naturally aspirated engines
A naturally aspirated engine is an internal combustion engine in which oxygen intake depends solely on atmospheric pressure and does not rely on forced induction through a turbocharger or a supercharger. Many sports cars specifically use naturally aspirated engines to avoid turbo lag.
2. Supercharged engines
A supercharger is an air compressor that increases the pressure or density of air supplied to an internal combustion engine. This gives each intake cycle of the engine more oxygen, letting it burn more fuel and do more work, thus increasing power.
Classification of IC engines based on type of ignition
1. Battery Ignition system
In a battery ignition system a battery is used to provide energy for ignition. It is work as storage of energy and charged by dynamo, which is driven by engine. It converts chemical energy to electric energy.
Two types of battery used in spark ignition system, lead acid battery and alkaline battery. The first one is used in light duty commercial vehicle and the other one is used in heavy duty commercial vehicle. It is housed in primary side of ignition coil.
2. Magneto Ignition system
A magneto is a small electric generator which is rotate by the engine and is capable of produce a very high voltage and does not need battery as a source of external energy.
The magneto contains both primary and secondary winding thus it does not require a separate coil to boost up the voltage required to operate the spark plug.
Classification of IC engine based on type of cooling
1. Air cooled engines
Air-cooled engines rely on the circulation of air directly over hot parts of the engine to cool them.
2. Water cooled engines
Water cooling is a method of heat removal from components and industrial equipment. As opposed to air cooling, water is used as the heat conductor. Water cooling is commonly used for cooling internal combustion engines.